Sunday, October 9, 2011
Emam Reza (A.S.), the eighth Shi'ite Emam was born on Thursday 11th Zee al-Qa'adah 148 A.H. /29 December 765 A.D. in Medina. The new-born child was named Ali by his holy father, Emam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.), the seventh Shi'ite Emam. He was divinely entitled al-Reza and his nickname was Abul Hasan.
For many times Emam Musa Al-Kazem (A.S) explicitly introduced his eldest son "Ali" as his immediate successor to accede to the divine position of Emamat.
Subsequent to the martyrdom of his father in Baghdad, on the 25th of Rajab 183 A.H. / 1 September, 799 A. D. in the prison of Abbasid caliph, Harunal_rashid, he attained the holy position of Emamat, when he was thirty five years old, and he held that divine position for twenty years.
Three Abbasid caliphs were his contemporaries: for the first ten years Harun al- Rashid, for next five years Amin and finally for the last five years Ma'mun.
Why Ma'mun invited Eman Reza (A.S.)
After the death of Harun (b, 766 A.D., r. 786-809 A.D.) in 193 A.H./ 809 A.D., Ma'mun fell into conflict with his brother Amin (b 787 A.D., r. 809-813 A.D.), which led to bloody wars and finally the assassination of Amin in 813 A.D./ 198 A.H., after which Ma'mun became caliph.
The Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphs were afraid of the Holy Emams (A.S.), who were publicly recognized as the true and worthy successors of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). The Holy Emams (A.S.), were therefore constantly persecuted and tortured by the ruling caliphs of the time.
Ma'mun thought ot finding a new solution for these difficulties which his Abbasid predecessors had not been able to solve. Ma'mun contrived to invite Emam Reza (A.S.)to Marw, (the city where Ma'mun's seat of caliphate was located) with the evil intention of making false friendship with His Holiness. Thus the cruel Caliph intended to have a direct eye on His Holiness.
In order to have this decision put into effect, Ma'mun forcefully exiled Emam Reza(A.S) from Medina to Marw. On his departure from Medina, Emam Reza (A.S.) gathered the members of his family and enjoined them to shed tears for his last jouney with no return. Holy Emam (A.S.) did not take any member of his household with him to Marw. His Holiness intended to make the people aware of the exile that Ma'mun had intended for him.
According to Ma'muns' commands the direction of Emam Reza (A.S.) caravan from Medina to Marw was predetermined. He arrived in Marw on the 10th of Shawwal in 201 A.H. / 1 May 817 A.D., via Basrah, Khorramshahr, Ahwaz, Rey, Neyshabur, Sanabad and Sarakhs. Throughout his long journey, the Holy Emam (A.S.) was cordially received by the people living in those cities and villages on the route. When His Holiness arrived in Neyshabur he narrated a Hadith Qudsi before an estimated crowd of 120,000 which also included thousands of distinguished scholars and traditionists. This historical and the most famous Hadith Qudsi in known as "Silsilat al-Dhahab". Emam Reza (A.S.) confirmed that worshipping God will be counted as a perfect procedure when it is based on the obedience of the Immaculate Holy Emams (A.S.). This historical statement of Emam Reza (A.S.) implied the presentation and assertion of the Emamat (Socio- religious leadership) of His Holiness.
The 8th Shi'ite Imam, Imam Ali ibne Musa ar-Reza (A.S.) is also called as Imam-e-Zaamin(A.S.).When Muslims go on journeys they take with them something called Imam-e-Zaamin (another name for Imam Reza (A.S.)) which is some money tied in a cloth. This tradition probably came from the time of Imam Reza (A.S.) when people used to carry money with them especially because it had Holy Imam's (A.S.) name on it. As Ma'mun,the Abbasid caliph the contemporary of Imam Reza(A.S.), had coins minted with the name of Imam Reza (A.S.) on them, it was very easy for the Muslims to carry the name of Holy Imam (A.S.) with them, especially when they went on journeys.
Imam Reza (A.S.) is also known as Imam-e- Zaamin (A.S.). Zaamin means "The Guarantor". One day when Imam Reza (A.S.) was on his historical journey from Madina to Marw(Khurasan),while in a jungle the Holy Imam(A.S.) came across a hunter who was about to kill a deer. The deer was trying to get away and when she saw Holy Imam (A.S.), she said something to him.Holy Imam(A.S.) asked the hunter to free the deer so that she could go and feed her little baby deer who were very hungry. Imam Reza(A.S.) also told the hunter that once the deer had fed her babies she would come back. The hunter allowed the deer to go becauseHoly Imam (A.S.) had told him to, but he did not think the deer will come back. But Imam Reza (A.S.)) waited with the hunter until the deer returned with her young ones. The hunter was amazed on witnessing this miraculous event and he set the deer free as a mark of respect for Imam Reza(A.S.).After this historical event Imam Reza(A.S.) became famous as Imam Zaamin(A.S.).
The most famous artist of the contemporary world, Ustad Mahmud Farshchiyan has depicted this historical event in this beautiful masterpiece iconograph entitled "Zaamin-e-Aahu"(The Guarantor of the Deer).
Successorship to Caliphate
His Holiness was welcomed at Marw by the caliph himself and by Fazl ibn Sahl and some distinguished Abbasid nobles in a place a few leagues outside the metropolis. After some days, Ma'mun offered Emam Reza (A.S.), first the caliphate, His Holiness seriously rejected Ma'mun's proposal. Then Ma'mun proposed Emam to accept the successorship to caliphate, the Holy Emam (A.S.) turned down this proposal also but he was finally forced to accept the successorship to caliphate. The Holy Emam (A.S.) put forward certain conditions that he would not interfere in
governmental affairs or in the appointment or dismissal of government agents.
Ritual of Fitr Prayer
In the late Ramadan 202 A.H./ March 817 A.D., Ma'mun requested Emam Reza (A.S.) to conduct the religious service of the celebration of "Fitr Prayers" (Festival at the end of the month of Ramadan) in Marw.
The Holy Emam (A.S.) accepted only with the condition to perform the related ritual just on the basis of the method of the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.).
Early in the morning of the celebration day of "Fitr", Holy Emam (A.S.) appeared in plain clothing and bare-footed before that congregation and glorified God loudly; saying "Allah Akbar" (God in the Greatest of all.). From every direction of the city the call "Allah Akbar" could be heard because the congregation present there followed His Holiness and shouted "Allah Akbar".
Ma'mun was deeply alarmed by the magnificence and splendour of that demonstration and requested Holy Emam (A.S.) to cease the continuation of that ritual.
The Holy Emam's (A.S.) Scholarly Discourses
Ma'mun often managed sessions of debates to be held in his own royal palace and celebrated scholars of various religions were invited there to exchange and discuss their different views on religious issues,Emam Reza (A.S.) was always victorious in all those debates and soon his opponents recognized the scientific status of His Holiness. Emam Reza (A.S.) directed Muslims to the right path and removed deviated views of the antagonists who endeavoured to distort Islam. In this way the Holy Emam (A.S.) safeguarded and propagated the principles of Islam.
The Holy Emam's (A.S.) Martyrdom
The vicious caliph was scared of the ever-increasing Holy Emam's (A.S.) popularity. Thus he decided to eliminate the Holy Emam (A.S.).
In 203 A.H./ 818 A.D., Ma'mun first imprisoned Emam Reza (A.S.) in Sarakhs. Then the Holy Emam (A.S.) was taken to Sanabad and confined in the palace of Humaid bin Qahtabah. During the morning of the last day of the month of Safar 203 A.H./ 818 A.D., the Holy Emam (A.S.) was poisoned by Ma'mun in that palace. The Holy Emam (A.S.) was seized with intensive pain and languor and in the evening of the same day the holy soul of the innocent Holy Emam (A.S.) departed to heaven. The Holy Emam (A.S.) was buried in the solitude of night at the same place of the palace which His Holiness had prophecied during his first visit to Humaid bin Qahtabah's palace at Sanabad in 201 A.H. / 817 A.D.
Once a small village called Sanabad soon transformed into a great metropolis by the presence of the holy shrine of Emam Reza (A.S.) called as Mashhad al-Reza (tomb sanctuary of Emam Reza (A.S.)., also briefly called Mashhad which is also one of the most extensively visited pilgrimage centers in the world.
POST by: Admin I AM SHIA
Compiled by : Dr Hyder Reza Zabeth
Wednesday, June 15, 2011
NAME : Ali
IMAMAAT : 1st Imam from the silsila-e-Imamaat
TITLE : Ameer-al-momineen, Mola-e-Kaayenaat, Abul Hasan
FATHER : Hazrat Abu Talib
MOTHER : Hazrat Fatima Binte Asad
BIRTH DATE : 13th Rajab, born inside KABAH (10 yrs before the
raising of Prophet)
AGE : 63 Years
DIED ON : Morning of 21st Ramadhan 40th Hijrah
DEATH PLACE : Masjid-e-Kufa
HOLY SHRINE : Najaf-e-Ashraf (IRAQ)
Birth of Imam Ali(A.S.)
Some of famous sayings of the Holy Prophet of Islam(S.A.W.) regarding the uniqueness and magnificence of Imam Ali(A.S.) as recorded in all the authentic Sunni and Shi'ite sources.
"Whomsoever I have authority over,Ali(A.S.) has also authority over him,
O Allah! befriend whoever befriend him and be hostile to whosoever is hostile to him".
"I am the city of knowledge and Ali(A.S.) is the gate."
"Ali(A.S.) is with truth and truth is with Ali(A.S.).They will never separate until they join at the Pool of Kawthar in the Hereafter"
"Every prophet has a vicegerent and inheritor and Ali(A.S.) is my vicegerent and inheritor."
"You[Ali(A.S.)] are to me as Aaron unto Moses,only there is no prophet after me."
"Only the faithful believer will love you and only hypocrites will hate you."
Birth of Ali(A.S.) in the Holy Kaaba
Hazrat Ali(A.S,) was born in the Holy Kaaba at Mecca on Friday, the 13th day of Rajab, 600 A.D. Both the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and Hazrat Ali(A.S.) belonged to the same clan. They were Hashimites, the clan of Bani Hashim. Muhammad's(S.A.W.) father was Abdullah, and that of Hazrat Ali(A.S.), Abu Talib. They were brothers and their father was Abdul Muttalib. Thus the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and Hazrat Ali(A.S.) were cousins. Hazrat Ali(A.S.) had two brothers, Ja'far and Aquil.
Hazrat All's mother Fatima was the daughter of Asad,a famous magnate of the Quraish clan. She was also the aunt of the Holy Prophet, being the wife of Abu Talib, the Prophet's paternal uncle. When she was pregnant, she promised Muhammad(S.A.W.) to make over to him whatever child was born to her, be it male or female. Muhammad(S.A.W.), brought forth, gladly accepted the offer.
Ali's holy personality began its wonderful manifestation even during the period of his mother's pregnancy. At that time, Muhanunad(S.A.W.) had not yet announced his prophethood, and yet when he passed before Fatima, who being his aunt was senior to him, she used to stand up in reverence and respect for him, and somehow something within her never allowed her to turn her face away from Muhammad(S.A.W.) as long as he was around.
When people asked her about this peculiar behaviour of hers, she would say that she could not help it, that some irresistible urge from within made her do so.
This statement was disbelieved by those who wished to test her. So one day they made her sit and they asked two strong men to hold her down when Muhammad(S.A.W.) passed by. Then they asked Muhammad(S.A.W.) if he would walk in front of her, to which he gladly agreed. As he came in front of her, Fatima began to rise and she stood erect throwing both men aside. Muhammad(S.A.W.) who alone was aware of this mystery, used to smile.
Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) was keenly awaiting the birth of his cousin Ali(A.S.).
During her pregnancy whenever Fatima was alone, she heard from within her a mysterious whisper which was to the glorification of God.
To understand the significance and importance of his place of birth, it is essential to know a little of the history of the Kaaba.
The first House of God was rebuilt and renovated at the command of Allah by the Prophet Abraham assisted by his worthy successor, his son Ismail, under the supervision and guidance of the Angel Gabriel. The verses of the Holy Qur'an say :
"And remember when Abraham raised the foundation of the House with Ismail, (Praying) Our Lord! accept (this service) from us; verily Thou and Thou (alone) art the All-hearing and All-knowing.
Chap. 2-Verse 127.
"And remember when we made the House a resort for mankind and a sanctuary (saying), Take ye the station of Abraham a place of prayer (For you); and covenanted with Abraham and Ismail (saying) purify ye two my House for those who make the circuit, and for those who prostrate (adoring) .
Chap. 2-Verse 125.
This verse clearly depicts the purpose of the Kaaba, namely that it was to be a place of worship and that it was pure and sacred.
Another indication of Ali's special merit was his birthplace. No one else, from Adam down through all the prophets, possessed such a distinction. Of all human beings, he alone was born in the sacred precinct of the Ka'ba. At the time of the birth of the Prophet Jesus his illustrious mother was forced to leave the Holy House. A voice said to her: "O Mary! Leave the Baitu'l-Muqaddas, since it is the place of worship and not of childbirth."
But when the time of Ali's birth approached, his mother, Fatima Bint Asad, was asked to enter the Ka'ba. She was expressly called to enter the Ka'ba, the door of which was locked.
She went to the Masjidu'l-Haram, where she felt labor pains. She prayed to Allah in the precinct of the Ka'ba, saying: "O Allah! I pray to you in the name of your honor and awe, to put me at my ease in this labor." Suddenly, the wall of the Ka'ba, which was locked, opened.
Another report says that a voice was heard saying: "O Fatima! Enter the House." Fatima went into the House of Allah in front of a crowd of people who were sitting round that place and the wall returned to its original condition. The people were greatly astonished. Abbas was also there. When he saw what had happened, he immediately told Abu Talib because he had the key to the door. He instantly came there and tried his best to unlock the door, but the door did not open.
For three days Fatima Bint Asad remained inside the Ka'ba, apparently without sustenance of any kind. This unusual event was the talk of the town. At last, on the third day, the passage through which she had entered again opened, and Fatima came out. The people saw that she had in her hands a lovely child. Both sects (Shias and Sunnis) agree that no one else had ever been given such distinction.
Hakim in his Mustadrak and Nuru'd-din Bin Sabbagh Maliki in his Fusulu'l- Muhimma, Fasl I, p.14, say: "No one before Ali(A.S.) was born in the Ka'ba. This was a distinction given to Ali(A.S.) in order to enhance his honor, rank, and dignity."
Ali(A.S.) was born a Muslim
On the third day of this happening, with awe the wonder- struck crowds surrounding the Kaaba witnessed the lock falling of its own accord, and to their surprise Fatima emerged radiant from the sacred premises, cheerfully holding her new-born babe in her arms. Muhammad(S.A.W.) was waiting to receive her and her new-born and the first face that little Ali(A.S.) saw in this world was the smiling face of the Apostle of Allah, Muhammad(S.A.W.), whom he greeted thus:
"Assalaamo alaika ya Rasoolallah (Peace be upon thee 0 Prophet of Allah).
Thus it is an undisputed fact that Ali(A.S.) was born a Muslim, and his first words testified to the Prophethood of Muhammad(S.A.W.). Muhammad(S.A.W.) lovingly took him into his arms. Ali's first bath after his birth was given by Muhammad(S.A.W.) with a prediction that this babe would give him his last bath. This Prophecy was fulfilled on the demise of the Holy ProphetS.A.W.). The child accepted no other food other than the moisture of Muhammad's tongue, which he sucked for several days after his birth. Muhammad(S.A.W.) fondled him in his lap in his infancy, and chewed his food and fed Ali(A.S.) on it; he often made him sleep by his side, and Ali(A.S.) enjoyed the warmth of Muhammad's(S.A.W.) body and inhaled the holy fragrance of his breath.
Ali(A.S.) was born in the sanctuary of Allah, to which the devil had no access, he did not cry at birth but was found smiling. Thus God had interposed a veil between the evil spirits and the child who was to grow up to exalt His Holy Name. All has been described as having been found like a priceless pearl in the shell of the Kaaba, or a sword in the sheath of Allah's House, or as a lamp found in Allah's abode shedding light all around.
The sanctified birth of Ali(A.S.), as that of Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), was foretold in the scriptures, when God said to Abraham, who asked for a blessing on Ishmael; "And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: behold I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly, twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. (Genesis 17 : 20).
The felicitous Prophecy in Genesis 17:20 about the advent of a prophet is said to point to the appearance of Muhammad(S.A.W.) and Ali(A.S.). While the Twelve Princes' of the Mosaic Scriptures are held to be none other than the twelve Holy Imams(A.S.).
Hazrat Ali's birth inside the Kaaba is unique. This is the only known occasion on which a child was born within the precincts of the holy place ever since its foundation thousands of years ago.
When Ali(A.S.) was about five years of age, Muhammad(S.A.W.) took him away from his uncle Abu Talib to bring him up as his own child. Thus from his earliest days, Ali(A.S.) came directly under the tutelage of the Apostle of Allah, to share his high ethics and morals. Ali(A.S.) was ever ready to run the risk of his own life for Muhammad(S.A.W.) at times of danger and he was affectionately attached to him with unswerving faithfulness. The cousins were so fond of each other that they lived together till death parted them.
As Hazrat Ali(A.S.) says: "The Holy Prophet brought me up in his own arms and fed me with his own morsel. I followed him wherever he went, like a baby camel which follows its mother. Each day an aspect of his character would beam out of his noble soul and I would accept it and follow it as a command.
Ten years in the company of Muhammad(S.A.W.) had kept him so close and inseparable that he was one with him in character, knowledge, self-sacrifice, forbearance, bravery, kindness, generosity, oratory and eloquence. From his very infancy, he prostrated himself before God along with the Holy Prophet, as he himself said,
"I was the first to pray to God along with the Holy Prophet.
According to Ibne-e-.Maja page 12, Raiz-un-Nazarah Vol. II page 158, Usdul Ghaba Vol. IV page 1, and Izalathul Khafa un Khilafatul Khulafa page 252, Ali(A.S.) used to say :
"I have prayed to Allah along with the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) seven years before any other person did.
The First Believers : Ibn Abbas, Anas. Zaid bin Aqram, Salman Farsi, and others have said, "Indeed it was Ali(A.S.) who was the first to declare his Islam, and some say that there is a consensus for this!Major Jarret's translation of Suyuti's History of the Caliphs page 171.
The Illustrious Ali(A.S.) was thus the first to readily embrace Islam and testified to Muhammad(S.A.W.) being the Apostle of Allah.
Often did the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) go into the depths of the solitary desert around Mecca with his wife Khadija and his young cousin and disciple, Ali(A.S.), so that they might together offer their thanks to their Allah for His manifold blessings.
Tuesday, April 19, 2011
IMAMAAT : 4th Imam from the Chain of Imamaat
TITLE : Zain-ul-Abideen ; Syed-us-Sajjideen
FATHER : Imam Hussain (AS) - 3rd Imam
MOTHER : Hazrat Bibi Sheherbano
Daughter of Yazdegar III, King of Persia
BIRTH DATE : Saturday 15th Jamadi-ul-Awal 36 AH. in Madina
AGE : 58 Years
DIED ON : 25th Muharram 95 AH
Poisoned by al-Walid ibn 'Abdi 'I-Malik ibn Marwan
HOLY SHRINE : Graveyard of Baqi (Janaat-ul-Baqi) - Demolished by Saudi's
The holy Imam 'Ali Zaynu 'l-'Abidin is the Fourth Apostolic Imam. His epithet was Abu Muhammad and was popularly titled as "Zaynu'l-'Abidin". The mother of this Holy Imam was the royal personage, Shahr Banu, the daughter of King Yazdgerd, the last pre-Islamic Ruler of Persia. Imam Zaynu'l-'Abidin spent the first two years of his infancy in the lap of his grandfather 'All ibn Abi Talib and then for twelve years he had the gracious patronage of his uncle, the second Holy Imam al-Hasan ibn 'All. In 61 AH, he was present in Karbala', at the time of the gruesome tragedy of the wholesale massacre of his father, his uncles, his brothers, his cousins and all the godly comrades of his father; and suffered a heartless captivity and imprisonment at the hands of the devilish forces of Yazid. When Imam Husayn had come for the last time to his camp to bid goodbye to his family, 'Ali Zaynu 'l-'Abidin was lying semiconscious in his sickbed and hence he escaped the massacre in Karbala'. Imam Husayn could only manage a very brief talk with the inmates of his camp and departed nominating his sick son as Imam.
The Holy Imam Zaynu'l-'Abidin lived for about thirty-four years after his father and all his life he passed in prayers and supplication to Allah and in remembrance of his martyred father. It is for his ever being in prayers to Allah, mostly lying in prayerful prostration, that this Holy Imam was popularly called "Sajjad". The knowledge and piety of this Holy Imam was matchless. az-Zuhrl, al-Waqid; and Ibn 'Uyaynah say that they could not find any one equal to him in piety and godliness. He was so mindful of Allah that whenever he sat for ablution for prayers, the complexion of his face would change and when he stood at prayer his body was seen trembling. When asked why this was, he replied, "Know ye not before whom I stand in prayer, and with whom I hold discourse?"
Even on the gruesome day of 'Ashura when Yazid's forces had massacred his father, his kith and kin and his comrades and had set fire to the camp, this Holy Imam was engrossed in his supplications to the Lord. When the brutal forces of Yazid's army had taken the ladies and children as captives, carrying them seated on the bare back of the camels, tied in ropes; this Holy Imam, though sick, was put in heavy chains with iron rings round his neck and his ankles, and was made to walk barefooted on the thorny plains from Karbala' to Kufah and to Damascus; and even then this godly soul never was unmindful of his prayers to the Lord and was always thankful and supplicative to Him. His charity was unassuming and hidden. After his passing away, the people said that hidden charity ended with the departure of this Holy Imam. Like his grand-father 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 'Ali Zaynu'l-'Abidin used to carry on his own back at night bags of flour and bread for the poor and needy families in Medina and he so maintained hundred of poor families in the city.
The Holy Imam was not only hospitable even to his enemies but also used to continually exhort them to the right path. Imam Zaynu 'l-'Abidin along with the Ahlu 'l-Bayt passed through dreadful and very dangerous times, for the aggressions and atrocities of the tyrant rulers of the age had reached a climax. There was plunder, pillage, and murder everywhere. The teachings of Islam were observed more in their breach. The heartless tyrant al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqaf; was threatening every one who professed allegiance or devotion to the Ahlu 'l-Bayt; and those caught were mercilessly put to death. The movement of the Holy Imam was strictly restricted and his meeting with any person was totally banned. Spies were employed to trace out the adherents of the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. Practically every house was searched and every family scrutinized.
Imam Zaynu 'l-'Abidin was not given the time to offer his prayers peacefully, nor could he deliver any sermons. This God's Vicegerent on earth therefore, adopted a third course which proved to be very beneficial to his followers. This was in compiling supplicative prayers for the daily use of man in his endeavour to approach the Almighty Lord. The invaluable collection of his edited prayers are known as as-Sahifah al-Kdmilah or as-Sahifah as-Sajjddiyyah; it is known also as az-Zabur (Psalm) of Al Muhammad The collection is an invaluable treasury of wonderfully effective supplications to the Lord in inimitably beautiful language. Only those who have ever come across those supplications would know the excellence and the beneficial effect of these prayers. Through these prayers the Imam gave all the necessary guidance to the faithful during his seclusion. On the 25th of Muharram 95 AH when he was in Medina, al-Walid ibn 'Abdi 'l-Malik ibn Marwan, the then ruler got this Holy Imam martyred by poison. The funeral prayers for this Holy Imam were conducted by his son the Fifth Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir and his body was laid to rest in the cemetery of Jannatu 'l-Baqi' in Medina.
Sunday, April 17, 2011
NAME : Fatima
TITLE : Zahra, Siddiqa, Tahira, Raazia, Inssiya, Batool, Marziya, Mohaddisa,
Hamida, KhirunisaHadi, Um-ul-Hassanain, Ume-e-Abeeha & Um-ul-Aiymma
FATHER : Hazrat Mohammed Mustufa (SAWW) - (Prophet)
MOTHER : Hazrat Bibi Khadija tul Kubra (swa)
BIRTH DATE : Friday 20th Jamadi-us-Sani
AGE : 18 Years
DIED ON : 13th Jamadi-ul-Awal or 3rd Jamadi-us-Sani
DEATH PLACE : Madina
HOLY SHRINE : Janaat-ul-Baqi (Demolished by Saudi Arabia)
Fatimah (A.S.) was the only woman connecting prophethood and Imamah and was the link between the two. She was the daughter of the Prophet (sawa), the wife of the first Imam (A.S.)and the mother of the rest of the Imams (A.S.)who descended from her and her husband Ali (as). Allah singled her out with this virtue and peculiarity because she was the most perfect and highest example in purity, sanctity, worship, asceticism and morals.
According to some Qur'an commentaries (tafsir), when the Quraysh (tribe) said that the Prophet (sawa) had no offspring, the chapter of al-Kauther was revealed: 'Verily We have given thee the Kauther (Abundance). So pray thou unto thy Lord! And offer sacrifice. Verily, thy enemy shall be the one cut off (in his progeny).' (Qur'an 108:1-3) 'We have given you al-Kauther' means we have given you the abundant good, which shall last throughout your life and after it; therefore, turn your face unto your Lord in prayer, as mention of your name shall never end and your offspring shall never perish; it is those standing against you who are more deserving of this description. This revelation was given against the backdrop of the pronouncements by some of the Quraysh's most scurrilous men - such as al-'As bin Wa'il, Abu Jahl, 'Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ayt and Ka'b bin al-Ashraf - that the Prophet (sawa) was cut off from male children, after the death of his son al-Qasim. Hence, it is clear that the abundant good - al-Kauther - was pointing to the abundant offspring which the Prophet (sawa) would have through his daughter Fatimah (as), and that this was a reply to those people and their effort to weaken the Prophet's spirits. Supporting our interpretation, al-Tabataba'I, in al-Mizan commentary, said: 'Without that, the words 'Verily, thy enemy shall be the one cut off' would be useless.'
In Fatimah's childhood, there was no place for playing, leisure and purposelessness. Nor were her energies those of a child living a childhood of innocence and simplicity. Rather, hers was the energy of a child who stored within herself a feeling for the role which she should play in the Messenger's life and the suffering and pain which he was facing. It was a childhood with the characteristics of a motherhood, living its spirit and fulfilling its role. There she was, and having opened her eyes to life, she saw her father (sawa) coming every now and then, weighed down by the pressures, burdens and harm inflicted by the atheists; so she would embrace her father and relieve his pain and take care of him with all kindness. One day, she saw her father (sawa) in the Holy Mosque of Makkah after the atheists had dumped dirt and rubbish over his back while he was praying to his Lord. She promptly went forward and removed the rubbish with her small hands, expressing her sadness and condolences to him (sawa) with her tears. This is what made her open up to her responsibilities in her early childhood to stand by her father, to take care of him and empathise with him; and he was the one who had lost his mother, and his sympathetic wife. She stood by him when he was challenged with the Message: some called him names, others accused him of being insane, others threw dirt and stones on him; his uncle Abu Lahab crying out: 'No doubt, Muhammad has bewitched you!' But when he returned home, he would be greeted by Fatimah (as), with her sympathy and care, which was not that of a child weeping without awareness..... She was sensing that his pain was also hers and so amassed during her childhood the pain of the Message and pain of the Messenger... And whosoever amasses in their early childhood the awareness of the pain of the Messenger and the Message cannot find time for leisure or playing or purposelessness; playing and purposelessness occur in our lives because of an emptiness, which we are trying to fill. This was how Fatimah (A.S.)grew up, not like other children, but as a person with mission in her feelings, emotions, opinions and her whole dynamic attitude.
Her relationship with the Prophet (saww)
Ibn 'Abdul Barr, in al-Istee'ab, narrated - and we would like very much to use it, as it was a Sunni source which represents a neutral source, so that the Shi'ah could not be accused of talking out of emotion - that 'Ayshah said: 'I had not seen any one who was more resembling the Messenger of Allah in his speech, conduct and manners as Fatimah; when she used to enter (his house) he would stand up for her, take her hand and kiss it and make her sit in his sitting place; and when he used to enter (her house) she would stand up for him, take his hand and kiss it and make him sit in her sitting place'. When we study this text, we can conclude two things: first, the unity and complete merging between Fatimah's personality and her father's, as the person most closely resembling him. This is reflected even in his walking, as seen in many narrations, such as 'Fatimah came and her walk did not fail the walking of the Messenger of Allah (sawa)'; second, the depth of the spiritual relationship between the Prophet (saww) and Fatimah (as), a relationship which the Prophet (sawa) had with Fatimah (A.S.)alone. Another narration by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak states: 'The Messenger of Allah used, when he came back from a battle or journey, to come to the mosque and pray two rak'as to thank Allah..... then would enter to (the house of) Fatimah, then he would come to his wives'. This meant that Fatimah (A.S.)held the prime place in the relationships between the Prophet (sawa) and other people, including his wives. In the same book, al-Mustadrak, al-Hakim also narrated: 'The Prophet (sawa), when he used to travel, the last person he would see was Fatimah.' Thus her image would stay in his mind, and the kindness and emotion, with which she used to embrace him, would stay with him in his travel and his memory, to comfort him. Al-Hakim added: 'And when he returned from a journey, the first person he would see would be Fatimah.' Historians have said that the Prophet (saww) did not accept that Fatimah (A.S.)became separated from him even after her marriage and, therefore, did not accept that she lived in a house far away from him, so she lived in the house next to his so that he could enter into her house directly from his. In al-Isti'ab we read: ''Ayshah was asked: who was the most beloved person to the Messenger of Allah? She replied: Fatimah. I asked: and amongst men? She said: her husband...' This is an important witness by 'Ayshah for Fatimah and Ali (as). There are many stories from her life which tell how she used to study her father's thoughts to know what he liked and disliked, what opened up his heart and what closed it. An example of this was when he (sawa) came back from a journey and entered her house, looked around a little, then left. Quickly she knew that something bothered the Messenger of Allah (sawa). She thought about it and realised that on the door of her house was a curtain and that she had two bracelets in her hands; she took the curtain down and took off the bracelets and sent them with her sons and said: 'Say greetings to my father and say to him: we have not introduced anything after you except this, it is for you to do with them what you like.' When the Prophet (sawa) heard this, his expression relaxed. He was moved by this generous, wonderful, spiritual gesture by his daughter, and this thoughtful response, and gave these things to the poor, saying: 'She did this! May her father be sacrificed for her! May her father be sacrificed for her! May her father be sacrificed for her! What have the family of Muhammad to do with life: they have been created for the hereafter!' This is what every girl with a mission should learn, when her father is a man of missionary affiliations and responsibilities; as too should every woman with someone who has a missionary dimension in his life: she should learn not to get too engrossed with her own affairs, but to open herself up to the responsibilities of her father, husband, brother or son so as to join with him in the dynamic movement of responsibility, and not to add to the burdens to his responsibility. For we see many great men, past and present, become burdened by the people who are around them: while when they think in a missionary manner, those around them think only of themselves. We also learn from Fatimah (as), in her advanced missionary awareness and position, that she was someone who rebelled against her personal needs, however simple, for the sake of her missionary ambitions; she was someone who prioritised in favour of principles over the self. This is what we need to learn, for many of us - men and women alike - fall down when it comes to a choice between the needs of the principle and the needs of the self; we too often choose the self, and may even make a principle of service to the self. Fatimah al-Zahra (A.S.)was unique in all her behaviour and deeds, even in her sorrow for her beloved, especially during her separation from the Messenger of Allah (sawa). Historians tell us that, when she went to him as he was dying, she embraced him and he whispered something in her ear which made her weep. Then, when he whispered something that made her laugh, she was asked: 'How quickly (your) laughing after weeping?!' She said: 'I shall not reveal the Messenger of Allah's secret in his life.' So, when she was asked about this after his death, she said: 'He whispered in my ear first that he was going to meet his Lord and that his soul was announced to him (his death), so I wept; then he whispered in my ear again that I was going to be the first of his family to go after him, so I laughed!' Where else would you find a young woman, whatever her love for her father, become happy when he tells her that she is going to be the first to die after him? What relationship deeper could be than this, and what unity of spirit could be stronger?
Her father's mother!
One of his eternal and most valued utterances in Fatimah's praise is the saying of the Prophet (sawa): 'Fatimah is the mother of her father!' But, to understand the precise meaning of this statement we should study the life of the Messenger of Allah (sawa) and the hardships and difficulties to which he was subjected from the beginning of his life. He suffered a great deal: from the atheists, to the point that he said: 'No prophet has ever been harmed like I have'; from losing his wife, the Mother of the Believers, Khadijah (as), who was the shelter in which he found refuge in his hardships; from the loss of his uncle Abu Talib, who took care of him and defended him and stood by him. And he suffered before all this, when he lived an orphan. Thus, when he was moved by Fatimah's feelings and care, he annointed the motherhood in his daughter with the words 'Fatimah is the mother of her father.' It encapsulated all his feeling for the kindness and great heart of his daughter towards the Messenger of Allah (sawa). So, imagine the great scale of the feeling and kindness of Fatimah (as), which succeeded so well in filling the soul of this great man and made him feel secure... To be a mother for a personality such as the Prophet (sawa) demands from the person who wants to play that role a great deal of effort, energy, heart and soul, and a broad horizon.
The first student
To use today's terminology, Fatimah and Ali (A.S.)were the first students in the boarding school of the Messenger of Allah (sawa). Ali (A.S.)used to sit in Makkah, when the revelation was being revealed to the Prophet (sawa), and Fatimah (A.S.)used to sit as well to read, together with Ali (as), the revelation and listen to the teachings of the Prophet (sawa), as he explained the meanings of the revelations. They, together, would learn what Allah had entrusted to His Prophet with his laws for man. Hence, Fatimah (A.S.)was with Ali (A.S.)in that great prophetic, cultural surge. One could understand the hadith 'If Ali did not exist, there would have been no match for Fatimah' on intellectual level: that which Fatimah (A.S.)had was not possessed by any one but Ali (as).
Many companions proposed to Fatimah (as), but the Prophet (sawa) kindly turned down their requests, saying: 'I await the order of my Lord' for in Fatimah (A.S.)there was special merit that was not to be found in his other daughters. Fatimah (A.S.)possessed a holy secret, which only Allah Almighty knew; similarly Ali (A.S.)possessed a holy secret, which only Allah knew. Some asked Ali: 'Why don't you propose to Fatimah?' But he was shy. At last he came to the Prophet (sawa) and talked to him on this matter. In his response, the Prophet (sawa) showed that he was pleased, as if he was waiting for this proposal, even preparing for it. He said to Ali: 'What money have you got?' Of course he (sawa) knew how much Ali (A.S.)had, for he was the one who brought him up and was with him both at home and away, day and night, in war and peace; nevertheless he asked him: 'What have you got?' Ali replied: 'My sword, shield and the clothes which I wear!' The Prophet (sawa) said: 'You cannot do without your sword with which you defend Islam and remove hardship from the Messenger of Allah, but give me your shield.' The shield was sold for 500 dirham and this was the marriage gift (mahr) of Fatimah (as), who accepted Ali (A.S.)as her husband. What we need to understand in this marriage is what is in the hadith that Imam al-Sadiq (A.S.)- or the Prophet (sawa) according to others - said: 'Had it not been that Allah the Most High created the Commander of the Faithful for Fatimah, there would have been no match for her on Earth.' What was this match that the narration was referring to? Certainly it was not the match in terms of family, for there was more than one cousin of the Prophet (sawa), but it was a match in soul, mind, intellect and belief. Fatimah (A.S.)was, through her faith, mind, intellect, soul, purity, holy struggle and asceticism, a suitable match for Ali (as), who was at the highest level as far these attributes were concerned. Allah ordered his Messenger (sawa) to marry his daughter to her match and the pure to the pure, because there was more than one point on which they met. This makes us understand the secret behind the refusal of the Prophet (sawa) to marry Fatimah (A.S.)off to any of the prominent companions. Al-Sadooq tells us, in 'Uyoon Akhbar al-Rida (as), that Ali (A.S.)said: 'The Messenger of Allah (sawa) told me: O Ali! Men from the Quraysh complained about Fatimah ('s marriage) and said: we have asked you for her hand in marriage but you have turned us down and married her off to Ali! I said to them: I swear by Allah that it was not me who turned you down and accepted him, but it was Allah...; (the archangel) Gabriel came down and said: O Muhammad! Allah the Great and Almighty said: If I have not created Ali, there would have been no match for your daughter Fatimah on the face of the Earth.
 A'yan al-Shi'ah, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-'Amily, Dar al-Ta'aruf, Beirut, Vol.1, p. 307.
 Same; also narrated in Sunan Abu Dawood, Musnad Ahmad and others.
 Al-Kafi, vol. 4, p. 555. Also, 'Awalim al-Zahra, p. 372 states that between the houses of the Prophet (sawa) and Fatimah (A.S.)there was an opening so that he (sawa) would be kept informed about her and her welfare.
 Ditto, p. 308. Also in Sunan al-Turmuthi and al-Amali by al-Tusi.
 Al-Bihar, vol. 43, chapter 4, p. 86; Musnad Fatimah, 'Ataridy, p. 106.
 Al-Irshad, vol. 1, p. 156; Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, p. 187, Dar Ihya' al-Turath al-'Arabi, 1991; al-Bihar, vol. 2, chapter 29, p. 486.
 Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 19; this nickname 'Ummu Abeeha', mother of her father, is included as one of the names by which she used to be known - see 'Awalim al-Zahra, p. 69.
 Al-Bihar, vol. 39, chapter 73, p. 56.
 Fatimah al-Zahra fil Ahadith al-Nabawiyyah, al-Sarawi, Beirut 1994, p. 86, 92; 'Awalim al-Zahra, p. 380.
 Al-Bihar, vol. 43, p. 127, 140; Dela'il al-Zahra, p. 46.
 Kashf al-Ghummah, al-Arbilli, vol. 1, p. 463; al-Bihar, vol. 43, p. 141.
Thursday, March 17, 2011
Wednesday, February 23, 2011
Sunday, February 13, 2011
It is narrated by Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq A.S, the sixth holy Imam that Never speak bad about Muhktar, that indeed it is thanks to him the killers of Imam Husain A.S were punished for their deeds so that we were able to leave our sorrows behind.
Abdullah Ibne Sharik has written that on the occasion of Baqra-Eid I visited Imam Muhammad Baqir A.S and found the holy Imam resting himself and at that moment suddenly a man who came from Basra entered the room and wished to kiss the hands of the holy Imam, but Imam Muhammad Baqir A.S moved away his hands and asked the man who he was. The man answered :
My name is Abu Muhammad Hakam Bin Mukhtar-e-Saqafi. On hearing this name the holy Imam called him closer and offered him to sit next to the Imam. After receiving this warm reception from the Imam this man continued: Oh my dear master people have the wrong assumptions about my father.Imam asked the son of Mukhtar: What do they say?
And he answered: They think bad of him and give him false accusations and says that my father is a liar. I am interested my master in your opinion of my father.
The holy Imam then replied: I have heard from my holy father Imam Zain-ul-Abedeen A.S (4th Imam) that Mukhtar is the one who often payed visit to the daughter of Amir-ul-Momeneen A.S. On his visits he used to sit down and payed attention to her teachings in Islam and he noted down every hadith he learned. The Mahr of my holy grandmother was also given by the fund Mukhtar had sent us. Mukhtar rebuilt our house and most important of all ended the lives of the tyrants. May God bless your father Mukhtar who took revenge and killed our enemies.
In the book of Behar-ul-Anwar Allama Majlisi has written that when the heads of Ibn e Ziad (L) and Umar-e-Saad (L) were sent to the Ahlul-Bayt (progeny of the prophet) and when Imam Zain-ul-Abedeed A.S saw the heads of the tyrants, the Imam prostrated at once and praised and thanked God by saying: I am thankful to you my Lord that you have taken revenge of the holy blood of ours. May you my Lord grant Mukhtar for this good deed.
In another narration Sahib-e-Nasiq has written that on the moment when these two heads were brought to Imam Zain-ul-Abedeen then the holy Imam said that: I thank God who kept me alive to this day when I could see the heads of the tyrants who killed my holy father Imam Husain A.S? Thereafter the servants of the Imam payed attention to the heads of the tyrants. Such a long time after the tragedy of Karbala this happy occasion was apparent and the Ahlul-Bayt had every right to celebrate this day.
Due to the happiness on this day, the usual syrup (Halwa) that was brought to the 4th Imam every day was forgotten. Someone asked one of the servants that today you forgot to bring the syrup to the Imam. When Imam Zain-ul-Abedeen heard this he said that do not worry about that today the heads of the tyrants is for me like you have brought me the most delicious syrup of all.
It is narrated that from the day when Imam Husain A.S was martyred till the day the heads of the killers of Imam Hussain A.S were brought to Madina, no member of the Ahl-ul-Bayt spent any time to their own e.g combing their hair or anything like that. Neither did anyone see smoke coming out from the house of the Ahlul-Bayt. That means food was never prepared at home but it was always brought from the bazaars and when everybody had eaten the food the Ahlul-Bayt continued to grieve for Imam Husain A.S.
It is also written in the books that our 4th Imam had quit eating any meals of meat. When the holy Imam passed by the butcher' shops the butchers used to cover the meats with a cloth because the Imam used to cry so much. But Mukhtar is indeed the lover of the Ahlul-Bayt who managed to bring happiness after 3-4 years in the house of the Ahlul-Bayt and Syeda Zainab (SA) along with the others could be happy on this day.
Saturday, January 1, 2011
What is Fadak ( فدک )?
After his victory at Khayber the Holy Prophet (S) decided to destroy the remaining strongholds of the Jews and thus end the danger to Islam. He therefore turned his attention to the Jewish village of Fadak, which was a fertile territory 180 kilometres north of Madina.
He sent an envoy to the elders of Fadak. The chief of the village, preferred peace and surrender to fighting. In return for the protection of the Muslims, he agreed to give half of the produce of the region to the Holy Prophet (S).
According to the rules of Islam, the lands conquered through war and military power are the property of all the Muslims and their administration lies with the ruler of the Muslims. However, those lands that are submitted to the Muslims without war, as in the case of Fadak, belong to the Holy Prophet (S) and after him, to the Holy Imam (A) of the time. They have the right to distribute such properties as they see fit. This is evident from the following verse:
Whatever God has bestowed on His Prophet from the people of the towns is for God and the Prophet and his relatives and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not circulate among the rich ones of you...
Surae Hashr, 59 : 7(Part)
The land of Fadak thus came into the possession of the Holy Prophet (S), and when the following verse was revealed,
And give the kinsman his due, and the needy and the wayfarer...
Surae Bani Israa'il, 17 : 26(Part)
he made a gift of Fadak to his dear daughter Bibi Fatima (A).
He did this for several reasons. Firstly, he was commanded to give his near ones their due. The Holy Prophet (S) and all the Muslims were indebted to Bibi Khadija (A) who sacrificed her entire wealth for the sake of the early Muslims. Her money had been used to spread Islam, free those Muslims who were slaves and support them in their times of trouble as in the three years of social boycott that they had faced in Makka. Now the Holy Prophet (S) could return her favours by gifting her daughter the rich land of Fadak. He also knew that after him, Imam Ali (A) would need Fadak as a source of income to safeguard his position as Caliph.
Finally, he wanted to leave some provision for his daughter and grandchildren so that they could live with dignity after his death.
However, after the Holy Prophet (S) passed away, Abu Bakr, who had stolen the right of Imam Ali (A) to the Caliphate, took Fadak away from Bibi Fatima (A). He did this to ensure that Imam Ali (A) would not have the means to regain his rights.
When her agents informed her that they had been replaced by the Caliph's men at Fadak, Bibi Fatima (A) decided to contest her right by legal means.
Abu Bakr refused to acknowledge her claim, and asked her to provide witnesses. Although she already possessed the property of Fadak and there had never been any doubt about her ownership, she brought two witnesses. These were Imam Ali (A) and a woman named Umme Ayman, about whom the Holy Prophet (S) had guaranteed that she would go to heaven.
Even then, Abu Bakr would not agree and he quoted a fake tradition saying,
"The Holy Prophet has said, `We the group of Prophets do not inherit, nor are we inherited and what we leave is for alms.'"
This was a blatant lie and moreover no one but Abu Bakr claimed to have heard it.
Bibi Fatima (A) then gave an eloquent lecture in which she first explained about the Oneness of Allah and the nature of the mission of her father. She then proved that Abu Bakr was lying by quoting the following verse:
And Sulaiman inherited Dawood...
Surae Naml 27 : 16(Part)
Although Abu Bakr was ashamed of his conduct and decided to return Fadak to her, she never forgave him for his actions. She did not speak to him again as long as she lived and at her funeral six months after her father died, he was not allowed to take part as per her will.
Eventually, Abu Bakr wrote a certificate to the effect that Fadak was the absolute property of Bibi Fatima (A) and gave it to her. However, when she was going back to her house, Umar al-Khattab chanced to meet her and came to know the contents of the certificate. He brought it back to Abu Bakr saying,
"As Ali is a beneficiary in this case, his evidence is not acceptable. As for Umme Ayman, being a woman, her testimony is also of no value on its own."
Saying this, he tore up the certificate in the presence of Abu Bakr. This action grieved Bibi Fatima (A) so much that she cursed him saying,
"May Allah cause your abdomen to be torn in the same way."
This prayer proved fateful, because in 24 A.H., Umar was stabbed thrice in the stomach by his killer, Abu Lulu.
After this, Fadak remained in the hands of successive rulers until the time of the Umayyad Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz, who returned it to Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (A). However, the next Caliph took it away and it remained with the Bani Umayyah Caliphs until their rule ended. During the rule of the Bani Abbas it was returned briefly, but then taken away forever.